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As the new school year begins, teachers, schools, school districts, organizations and governments are looking to improve early literacy scores post-pandemic. Some states across the US have strengthened previous legislative acts, other states have action plans in place to deal with literacy inequity, while others have enacted new laws to increase early reading achievement.

Several resources exist covering much of the good work underway across the US.

We’ve reviewed all these resources and selected the most pertinent information that relates to early literacy achievement and summarized it for you here. Our interactive map offers an additional way to navigate the information. It is the only one of its kind that focuses solely on the Pre-K to 3 education journey. Simply click on any state and see what efforts are in place to improve literacy scores.

 

How to Read Each Evidence-based Early Literacy Profile

Evidence-Based Early Literacy Profile

Each state identified share three common components in reading achievement for early learners. These three elements look at the planning behind each student when they enter kindergarten, their Pre-K to 3 education experience, and their level of reading achievement at Grade 3. 

Each profile includes succinct answers to all of the following questions:

  1. Quality of Instruction 
  • Is instruction evidence-based? How so?
  1. Assessments & Monitoring of Data
  • Besides mandated assessments, what other structures are in place to monitor student progress?
  • Given the importance of identifying dyslexic early learners, is there a provision to screen for these learners? 
  • Is there a plan for connecting Pre-K data to school data, and a mechanism for dealing with students who don’t meet reading requirements by Grade 3?
  1. Interventions
  • Is there any guidance on how the assessment data is to be used?
  • Is guidance provided on the type of interventions that should be implemented?

The education industry in the US is regulated at the federal and state level. It is helpful to see the policies of each state in the US, to get a feel for how things are progressing. 

Sprig hopes that this information is useful in understanding the current landscape of evidence-based early literacy policies in the US. 

Sprig Reading is an interactive tool for JK-2 teachers that was designed to implement evidence-based instruction for diverse classrooms. It strongly encourages screening for dyslexia and formative assessments, and fits well within the framework of existing screening and assessment policies. Additionally, it agrees with and conforms to all assessment use cases that are in law currently, such as informing intervention policies, reporting to parents, or informing instruction.

 

The Interactive Evidence-based Early Literacy Map of the US


Alabama

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Alabama Literacy Act, passed in 2019, has sharpened the focus on early grades reading and directed coaching support and additional resources to support reading instruction based on the science of reading. The law now requires all schools to assess all students in reading from kindergarten through third grade.” (Public Affairs Research Council of Alabama)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third-grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of interventions:

– Summer school.

– After school.

– Saturday school tutorial programs.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Alaska

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“In June 2022, Governor Mike Dunleavy signed the Alaska Reads Act into law, creating four new programs to support early literacy: district reading intervention program, department reading program, voluntary Pre-K and Parents as teachers, and  a virtual education consortium.” (The Alaska Reads Act)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Allowed, but not required. Retention policy is a local decision.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third-grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Arizona

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Arizona’s Move on When Reading law was first enacted in 2010 and implemented in 2013.  The purpose of the legislation is to identify struggling readers and to provide them with specific, targeted interventions so that they are reading at or above grade level by the end of the 3rd grade.

A student may not be promoted from the third grade if the student fails to demonstrate sufficient reading skills on the statewide assessment as determined by the Board.” (Arizona State Board of Education). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening and formative assessments in reading are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Inform instruction.

– Monitor student progress.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Intensive intervention based on high-quality research findings.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Arkansas

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Right to Read Act, amended by the Arkansas Legislature in 2019, requires curriculum programs that are supported by the science of reading and based on instruction that is explicit, systematic, cumulative, and diagnostic, including without limitation: (1) dyslexia programs that are evidence based and aligned to structured literacy or grounded in the Orton-Gillingham methodology, (2) evidence-based reading intervention programs, and (3) evidence-based reading programs that are grounded in the science of reading.” (Division of Elementary and Secondary Education)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Yes. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Literacy and mathematics assessments are required in grades K-2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Reporting to students, parents and the community.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– In school intensive reading instruction.

– Summer school programs.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

California

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

Senate Bill 488 Teacher credentialing: reading instruction was signed in 2021, “which will require the Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) to revise and strengthen teaching standards for licensure for new teachers that incorporate both the science of reading and the California Dyslexia Guidelines. Decoding DyslexiaThe new law will require that accredited teacher preparation programs meet higher standards with respect to preparing teachers in evidence-based reading instruction, particularly foundational reading skills. The CTC will also be required to certify that existing accredited teacher preparation programs are aligned with the new teaching standards. The new law will sunset the Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (or “RICA) and it will be replaced with a new Literacy Teaching Performance Assessment that will include assessing instruction on foundational reading skills.” (New California Reading Law Tightens Teaching Standards)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

No additional assessments are required. However, districts can receive support from the state department of education to provide K-2 English language arts and mathematics formative assessments.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Summer school.

– Interim session remediation.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No. 

 

Colorado

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Colorado Reading to Ensure Academic Development Act (READ Act), passed by the Colorado legislature in 2012, focuses on early literacy development for all students and especially for students at risk to not read at grade level by the end of the third grade. The READ Act focuses on literacy development for kindergarteners through third-graders. Students are tested for reading skills, and those who are not reading at grade level are given individual READ plans. In 2019, the legislature strengthened the READ Act, adding new emphasis on the importance of instruction that is scientifically proven to be effective in teaching all students to read at grade level. It required all K-3 teachers to receive training in evidence-based reading instruction.” (Colorado READ Act).

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Allowed, but not required. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments in reading are required to be given by teachers in grades K-3. Summative reading assessments may be administered in grades K-2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing individual intervention.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Student specific strategies based on their needs.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Connecticut

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?“New mandates within the recently enacted state budget bill require every school district in the state to have a reading curriculum that focuses on the so-called “science of reading” by 2023.The legislation, initially dubbed the “Right to Read” act, also calls for $12.8 million in spending to ensure that school districts where students are falling behind can hire reading coaches.” (Right to Read CT)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments in reading are required to be administered to students in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing instruction.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Supplemental reading instruction.

– Tutoring

– After school, school vacation, weekend, ro summer reading program.

– Individual reading plans.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Delaware

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

Senate Bill 4 was introduced in March 2022. “This Act requires the Department of Education to maintain and publish a list of evidence-based, reading instruction curricula for grades kindergarten through 3. Each curriculum on this list must align with the essential components of literacy, known as the “science of reading” and use high-quality instructional materials. This Act also requires that by the beginning of the 2027-2028 school year, school districts and charter schools serving students in grades kindergarten through 3 do all of the following: 1. Adopt a reading instruction curriculum from the Department list. 2. Demonstrate that all educators who teach reading complete professional development aligned with the essential components of evidence-based reading instruction. 3. Identify a school-based supervisory position responsible for assisting with the implementation of the adopted curriculum.” (Delaware General Assembly)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments on student progress on state standards must be given to students in grades K-2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Reporting results to parents.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individual improvement plan.

– Summer school.

– Before and/or after school instruction.

– Saturday school.

– Tutoring.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Florida

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

Just Read, Florida! was launched in 2001 with the unequivocal goal of every child being able to read at or above grade level. The 2022 Florida Statutes ensures that the office shall provide “training to reading coaches and school administrators on the evidence-based strategies for purposes of implementation, modeling, and classroom observations to support professional growth and inform performance evaluations of instructional personnel. It shall create multiple designations of effective reading instruction, with accompanying credentials, to enable all teachers to integrate reading instruction into their content areas. It shall also work with the Lastinger Center for Learning at the University of Florida to develop training for K-12 teachers, reading coaches, and school administrators on effective content-area-specific reading strategies to improve student reading performance.” (The 2022 Florida Statutes)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring assessments can be administered to identify reading deficiencies.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Identifying reading deficiencies.

– Informing intensive, explicit, systematic, and multisensory reading interventions.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of interventions:

– Personalized intensive, explicit, systematic and multisensory.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Georgia

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

HR 650 passed in 2022, which has the following committee goals 

“1. Define evidence-based literacy instruction.

  1. Understand impact of low-literacy on Georgia’s workforce competitiveness.
  2. Identify all the programs that exist along the pipeline and understand how they can work together.
  3. Examine how changes can be made to education standards to support evidence-based instruction and enable adaption as new science emerges.
  4. Determine how Georgia can best support and expand local ecosystems to maximize potential and while enabling local flexibility.
  5. Recommend actions and legislation as needed.” (HR 650: EVIDENCE BASED LITERACY STUDY COMMITTEE)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with the opportunity for a parental or teacher appeal.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments in reading and mathematics are required in grades 1 and 2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Class augmentation.

– Self-contained instructional models.

– Reduced class size.

– Pull-out models.

– Reading Recovery.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Hawaii

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

 Hawaii “requires all schools to have early screening and assessments for early identification of dyslexia. These requirements include:

  • A multi-tiered system of research-validated interventions and supports.
  • Multi-sensory structured language education.
  • Program content includes phonology and phonological awareness, sounds and symbol association, syllables, morphology, syntax, and semantics.” (Journal, IMSE)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No. 

 

Idaho

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The Idaho Comprehensive Literacy Plan, introduced in 2020, “ lays a good framework for the state’s literacy instruction. The 45-page document identifies the five essential reading components as phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension.It also puts focus on research-based interventions and systematic, explicit instruction. It lays out how teachers shall use a wide variety of information about their students to develop individualized instruction that addresses students’ unique needs.” (Journal, IMSE)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments in literacy are required twice per year in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing interventions.

– Determining whether struggling schools will require a school intervention program.

– Reporting annually to the state board, legislature and governor and public.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Extended time literacy intervention.

– Minimum of 60 hours of supplemental instruction for students who score below basic on the reading screening assessment.

– Minimum of 30 minutes of supplemental instruction for students who score basic on the reading screening assessment.

– Online or digital instruction materials or programs may be used.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Illinois

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The Right to Read Act passed the house committee in 2022. It requires “that the State Board of Education shall offer support: to each public school district to select evidence-based core reading instruction programs and implement them using structured literacy instruction; and to each early childhood, elementary, and special education teacher, reading specialist, literacy coach, and administrator to complete evidence-based training in teaching reading. Requires the State Board of Education to annually compile and post on its website information on the steps it has undertaken to support school districts to deliver high-quality, evidence-based literacy instruction, including a list of any Early Literacy Grant recipients, documentation of how the recipient allocated the funding to support improved literacy, and what evidence-based literacy curricula the recipient is utilizing.” (Bill Track 50)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed. Retention policy is a local decision.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Summer bridge program of no less than 90 hours.

– Tutorial sessions.

– Increased or concentrated instructional time.

– Modifications to instructional materials.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Indiana

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

It was announced in August 2022 that “Indiana will spend $111 million to revamp its method of teaching reading to young students by prioritizing phonics, state leaders announced Thursday. The lion’s share of the funds will go to training teachers in the “science of reading” — a vast body of research on optimal early literacy techniques.  The bulk of the total money $85 million will go toward training current and future teachers on phonics-focused literacy instruction. Up to $60 million is for the state education department to increase the number of instructional coaches who specialize in phonics-based literacy in elementary schools.” (Chalkbeat Indiana). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with certain exemptions. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Formative and summative assessments in reading for grades K-2 must be included in a district’s reading plan.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Scientifically-based reading strategies that meet the student’s needs.

– Instruction by an effective teacher as measured by student performance results.

– At least 90 minutes of reading instruction each school day.

– At least one of the following instructional options:

– Tutoring before or after school.

– Parent workshops and a parent-guided home reading program.

– A mentor or tutor with specialized reading training and may include volunteers or school staff.

– Extended-day programs, supplemental instruction services.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Iowa

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Iowa has two codes in place that promote effective, evidence-based programming, instruction, and assessment practices. It requires that each school district must assess all students K-3 for their level of reading or reading readiness. For students who are persistently at risk in reading, schools must provide intensive instruction, including 90 minutes daily of scientific, research-based reading instruction.” (Journal, IMSE).

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Yes. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Locally determined or statewide assessments in reading or reading readiness are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing instruction and intervention for students.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:- Reduced teacher-student ratios.

– More frequent progress monitoring.

– Small group instruction.

– Tutoring or mentoring.

– Extended school day, week, or year.

– Summer reading programs.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Kansas

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

HB 2567 was passed in 2022, which creates “the Every Child Can Read Act, which requires every school district in Kansas to implement a literacy program based on the science of reading, designed to ensure every student learns to read by third grade.” (Kansas Lawmakers Pass Transformational, Student-Centered Legislation)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No. 

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

State or diagnostic assessments that meet state standards in math and reading are required in grades K-3

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required use of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing target specialized instructional interventions, programs and strategies.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individualized instruction.

– Alternative teaching methods.

– A restructured school day.

– Extended time strategies.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Kentucky

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Kentucky passed a few laws relating to dyslexia in 2018. House Bill 187 required the Department of Education to create a dyslexia toolkit that contains guidance, training, and technical assistance aimed at implementing evidence-based practices.House Bill 367 created a dyslexia trust fund administered by the Kentucky Department of Education. The purpose of the fund is to finance grants to local school districts for support of students identified by the characteristics of dyslexia.” (Journal, IMSE)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Diagnostic assessments in reading must be provided by school districts for grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing intervention services for students who are not at a proficient reading level.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Response to Intervention.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Louisiana

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

In 2021, Louisiana passed Act 108, “which requires early literacy training for all K-3 teachers of reading, math, science, and/or social studies as well as principals and assistant principals of schools that include the K-3 grade levels. This training, which consists of the science of reading, must be completed no later than the beginning of the 2023-2024 academic year.” (Richland Parish School Board). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening in literacy must be administered to all students in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of the K-3 assessment data include:

– Identifying reading deficiencies.

– Identifying possible physical or mental impairments.

– Informing instruction and intervention.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Maine

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The updated 2020 Maine Reading Standards “provides earning targets in developmental progressions for each grade K-5.”(Maine Department of Education). Reading Foundational skills are a part of the supporting materials to better implement the reading standards. 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Allowed, but not required.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments in reading, mathematics, science and social studies are required in grades K-12.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

School districts are required to provide interventions to students in grades K-12 to support them in meeting academic standards and requirements. Interventions must be timely and based on ongoing formative assessments and progress monitoring

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Maryland

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The Ready to Read Act “requires local school systems to screen students in kindergarten for reading difficulties and to screen students in first grade who have not been screened or who are at-risk for reading difficulties. It also requires supplemental instruction to be provided to those students found to be at risk for reading difficulties. “ (Maryland State Board of Education)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening in reading must be administered by a district to students entering a school in kindergarten or first grade.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing intervention.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Enrollment in a reading assistance program.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Massachusetts

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Starting in 2018, staff in the Department’s Office of Literacy and Humanities engaged educators and other stakeholders statewide to develop the Department’s Literacy Strategic Plan.This strategic plan, called Mass Literacy,  responds to the concerns of educators along with ELA/Literacy achievement data. As a result, it identifies two areas of focus for the Department’s instructional support for English Language Arts and Literacy: high-quality core instruction and evidence-based early literacy.” (Massachusetts, Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Michigan

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“In 2016, the Michigan Legislature passed a law that requires schools to identify learners who are struggling with reading and writing and to provide additional help. The law states that third graders may repeat third grade if they are more than one grade level behind beginning with the 2019-2020 school year.” (State of Michigan)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening, formative, and diagnostic assessments in reading must be administered at least three times per year to K-3 students.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Diagnosing reading difficulties.

– Informing instruction and intervention needs.

– Assessing progress towards a growth target.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of Intervention:

– Additional instructional time during the school day.

– Students in third grade can receive:

– Daily small group instruction or 1-on-1 instruction.

– Parent-lead reading at home programs.

– Ongoing progress monitoring.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Minnesota

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The 2021 Minnesota Statutes cover the literacy goal of seeking “to have every child reading at or above grade level no later than the end of grade 3, including English learners. It requires that teachers provide comprehensive, scientifically based reading instruction.” It also says that “Reading assessments in English, and in the predominant languages of district students where practicable, must identify and evaluate students’ areas of academic need related to literacy. The district also must monitor the progress and provide reading instruction appropriate to the specific needs of English learners. The district must use a locally adopted, developmentally appropriate, and culturally responsive assessment and annually report summary assessment results to the commissioner by July 1. (Minnesota Legislature)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Allowed, but not required.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Locally determined reading assessments are required in grades K-2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Reporting results to parents.

– Reporting results to the state department.

– Informing instruction and intervention.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Attendance in summer school.

– Intensified reading instruction that may require that the student be removed from the regular classroom for part of the school day.

– Extended-day programs.

– Programs that strengthen students’ cultural connections.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Mississippi

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“In 2013, Mississippi passed a law to use science-based instruction to ensure students read at or above grade level by the end of third grade.” (The Hechinger Report). The Literacy-Based Promotion Act (LBPA) “ensures a comprehensive approach to teaching all children to read starting as early as kindergarten. The true spirit of the law is to identify K-3 students who need additional help in reading as early as possible and to provide effective instruction and intervention to ensure they read on grade level by the end of third grade. In 2016, the law was amended to include individual reading plans for students identified with a reading deficiency, and a higher cut score was established for third-grade promotion.” (Excel in Ed). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening assessments are required in literacy and numeracy in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Identifying reading deficiencies.

– Reporting to the state department of education.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Small group instruction.

– Reduced teacher-student ratios.

– Tutoring in scientifically research-based reading services in addition to the regular school day.

– The option of transition classes.

– Extended school day, week or year; and Summer reading camps.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Missouri

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Missouri still abides by the Reading Instruction Act, established in 2002. The bill was enacted to ensure that all public schools establish reading programs in kindergarten through third grade that are based in scientific research.These programs must include the essential components of phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. All new teachers who teach reading in kindergarten through third grade must receive adequate training in these areas.” (Journal, IMSE.)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Reading assessments must be administered by a district at the beginning of the school year to all third-grade students.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of the K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing reading improvement plans and instruction.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individual intervention plan.

– Summer reading program.

– Individual or group development activities.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Montana

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Montana enacted SB0140 in July of 2019, which is cited as the “Montana Dyslexia Screening and Intervention Act.The act addressed dyslexia in Montana by providing a definition of dyslexia and requiring school districts to screen students and address the needs of students identified with dyslexia. The screening instrument must be designed to assess developmentally appropriate phonological and phonemic awareness skills.”( Journal, IMSE). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Nebraska

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The NebraskaREADS initiative was created to serve the needs of students, educators, and parents along the journey to successful reading. The NebraskaREADS initiative supports the policies and practices outlined in the Nebraska Reading Improvement Act, which was enacted in 2018 and went into effect during the 2019-2020 school year. The law takes a comprehensive approach to improve the early literacy skills of Nebraska’s K-3 students. It emphasizes the importance of strong early reading instruction and individualized supports for students who are struggling.”(Nebraska Department of Education). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Nevada

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Nevada’s Grade 3 Reading laws, which were revised in 2019, require districts to create a literacy plan for elementary school students. At the school level, principals must identify a literacy strategist to assist other teachers with reading instruction, and teachers must complete state-mandated professional development around reading. If a student in kindergarten through third grade falls behind in reading, the district must notify parents, and districts must create a plan to monitor the students’ progress. The state had planned to phase in a retention requirement in the coming years, but 2019 revisions to the law eliminated that requirement.” (Third Grade Reading Laws). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed, but not required.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Reading assessments are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing reading interventions.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Small group reading sessions.

– Specific instruction based on reading deficiencies.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

New Hampshire

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

New Hampshire law states, “The student’s school district shall provide age-appropriate, evidence-based, intervention strategies for any student who is identified as having characteristics that are associated with potential indicators or risk factors of dyslexia and related disorders beginning no later than January 1, 2018.”In the event  that a diagnosis of dyslexia or other reading disability is confirmed by the comprehensive assessment, the board of education shall provide  appropriate evidence-based intervention strategies to the student, including  intense instruction on phonemic awareness, phonics and fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.” (National Center on Improving Literacy)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

New Jersey

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The most recent literacy policy of note that was passed in New Jersey was AB3606. This act stated that during each five-year, 100-hour professional development period, teachers are required to complete at least 20 hours of professional development instruction on the screening, intervention, accommodation, and use of technology for students with reading disabilities such as dyslexia.” (Journal, IMSE).

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed, local decision and policy.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

New Mexico

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

Senate Bill 398 was signed into law in 2019. It states that “ Every school district shall develop and implement a literacy professional development plan that includes a detailed framework for structured literacy training by a licensed and accredited or credentialed teacher preparation provider for all elementary school teachers and for training in evidence-based reading intervention for reading interventionists and special education teachers working with students demonstrating characteristics of dyslexia or diagnosed with dyslexia.” (54th Legislature, State of New Mexico)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed, local decision.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening and progress monitoring in reading, language arts and mathematics are required for grades kindergarten and one. Diagnostic tests in reading and language arts are required in grades two and three.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 Assessment date include:

– Inform, in part, grade placement determinations.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Tutoring.

– Extended day or week programs.

– Summer programs.

– Other research-based interventions and models for student improvement.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

New York

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

In 2022, New York City Mayor Eric Adams announced that elementary schools in the biggest district in the country would be required to adopt a phonics-based reading program. (Time). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Diagnostic screening in reading, mathematics, problem solving, motor development, articulation skills, and cognitive development are required of all new entrants to school and those with low test scores.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individualized instruction.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

North Carolina

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Excellent Public Schools Act of 2021 modifies the implementation of read-to-achieve programs, including changes to reading instruction in North Carolina public elementary school classrooms, with the aim of improving literacy levels by the time students reach the third grade. Notably, the law transitions reading instruction away from a ‘look and say’ method to adopt a ‘Science of Reading’ approach based on phonetic practices of comprehension, and establishes an Early Literacy Program in the N.C. Department of Public Instruction to provide teacher training and support.The law means teacher licensing will include three continuing education credits directly related to literacy and based upon the science of reading method.” (The Carolina Journal). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Formative and diagnostic assessments in reading are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Identifying student reading difficulties.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individual instruction.

– Tutoring, or mentoring that targets specific reading skills and abilities.

– Reading camp.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

North Dakota

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Science of Reading legislation passed by the North Dakota legislature in 2021. This legislation is intended to support the improvement of core reading instruction for students in kindergarten through third grade throughout North Dakota. The Science of Reading legislation requires schools and districts to use curriculum to provide reading instruction and correctly diagnose reading struggles. Specifically, K-3 educators and administrators must receive training in instructional practices that align with research that reveals the science of how the brain learns and engages in reading.” (North Dakota Department of Public Education). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Summer school.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Ohio

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Bill 436 was signed into law in 2019 that requires the department, in collaboration with the Ohio Dyslexia Committee, to identify screening and intervention measures that evaluate the literacy skills of students using a multi-sensory structured literacy program.” (Ohio Department of Education). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Diagnostic assessments in reading, writing and mathematics are required in grades K-2. Diagnostic assessments in reading and writing must be administered in grade three.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Understanding student progress towards meeting learning standards.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Alternative or supplemental instruction.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

Oklahoma

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

Teachers in Oklahoma “are now required to receive annual training for dyslexia awareness from a multi-sensory structured language training institute. “ (Journal, IMSE)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Screening instruments in reading are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Identifying the need for intervention and additional instruction.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Additional instructional time.

– After school tutoring.

– Summer school programs.

– Student who have been retained

– Minimum of ninety minutes of daily uninterrupted time.

– Scientific-research-based reading instruction.

– Individualized instruction.

– Small group instruction.

– Reduced teacher-student ratio.

– Progress monitoring, tutoring or mentoring.

– Transition classes containing third and fourth grade students.

– Extended day/week/year programs, and summer school.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Oregon

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Oregon Legislature passed the Student Success Act in 2019, which was a historic investment in Oregon education.” It pledged $1 billion per year on initiatives that included early Learning. It required that the Teachers Standards and Practices Commission “establish the standards for the professional development of teachers. Schools must be able to demonstrate that candidates receive training in how to provide literacy instruction that enables all students to meet or exceed third-grade reading standards.” (Journal, IMSE). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Ongoing screening, progress monitoring and assessments can be administered to students in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Guiding instructional decisions.

– Informing instructional strategies for student groups.

– Supporting structured interaction with parents.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Pennsylvania

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

House Bill 2045 passed in 2022,  “which requires the state Department of Education to establish a teacher training course in the “science of reading,” starting next school year.It defines “science of reading” as evidence-based instructional and assessment practices that integrates listening, speaking, reading, spelling and writing in the development of oral and written language skills. The statewide literacy program would be voluntary for public schools to participate. Its purpose is to train educators on how to identify potential risk factors for early reading deficiencies and instruct them in how to differentiate instruction to improve reading outcomes.” (Penn Live)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Each school must design an assessment system for all students to determine the degree to which students are achieving academic standards.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Identifying and providing assistance to students who are not achieving proficiency on academic standards.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Not specified in statute or regulation.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Rhode Island

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The Rhode Island Right to Read Act was passed in July of 2019.  The law requires educators to exhibit either proficiency in or awareness of the knowledge and practices of the Science of Reading and Structured Literacy. In addition, Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) must provide professional learning for educators to support these requirements, and Educator Preparation Programs (EPPs) must address these requirements within their programs of study.

The Science of Reading, or scientific reading instruction, is defined as empirically-based instruction that is grounded in the study of the relationship between cognitive science and educational outcomes. Structured Literacy is defined as an approach to teaching that integrates speaking, listening, reading, and writing by providing explicit, systematic, diagnostic-prescriptive instruction in phonological and phonemic awareness, sound-symbol correspondence (phonics), syllables, morphology, semantics, and syntax.” (Rhode Island Department of education)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Districts must develop an assessment plan to monitor and assess all students’ progress.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Inform teacher evaluations.

– Improving performance in the school district.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Supplemental instruction.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

South Carolina

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The South Carolina Read to Succeed Act requires the  implementation of “ a comprehensive, systemic approach to reading which will ensure that classroom teachers use evidence-based reading instruction in prekindergarten through grade twelve, to include oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension; administer and interpret valid and reliable assessments; analyze data to inform reading instruction; and provide evidence-based interventions as needed so that all students develop proficiency with literacy skills and comprehension.” (South Carolina Legislature). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Formative assessments in English language arts and mathematics are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing and improving literacy instruction and planning at the school and district level.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individual or small group assistance.

– 30 minutes of additional reading and writing instruction.

– Summer reading camps.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

South Dakota

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“In 2018, South Dakota updated its State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy. The detailed plan focuses on the shared responsibility for students’ literacy development, focus and coherence in instruction and assessment, and formative and summative assessment among other things.

The standards break down the foundational skills of reading into four major components:

  • Print Concepts
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonics and Word Recognition

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of interventions:

– Scientifically-based literacy instruction.

– Educational and behavioral evaluations.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Tennessee

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

In 2021, “The Tennessee General Assembly approved a $160 million package of bills, legislation aimed at tackling student learning loss during the pandemic, the state’s stagnant literacy rates and how schools will handle standardized testing after a year of academic disruptions. 

The new legislation lawmakers approved requires local school districts to use a phonics-based approach for teaching children to read. It also provides training and support for educators to teach phonics-based reading instruction.” (The Tennessean). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Response to Instruction and Intervention.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Texas

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“House Bill 3, passed during the 86th Texas Legislature, established the requirement that all teacher candidates who teach students in grades Pre-K-6 demonstrate proficiency in the science of teaching reading on a new, standalone certification exam. This requirement took effect on January 1, 2021.” (Texas Education Agency)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is required with exemptions.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Reading assessments are required in grades K-2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Determining if students have reading difficulties or dyslexia.

– Informing parents of students’ reading skills and difficulties.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Before, after and nontraditional school time instruction.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Utah

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

Utah Senate Bill 127 was signed into law in 2022. “This bill amends and establishes programs to emphasize literacy in kindergarten through grade 3. This bill requires the state board to establish strategies and administer programs to improve early literacy outcomes in kindergarten through grade 3, including:providing statewide and regional support in literacy coaching and professional learning in early literacy; establishing a panel with expertise in the science of reading and the science of reading instruction.” (Utah Legislature)

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Benchmark assessments in reading are required in grades 1-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Reporting to parents.

– Determining if a student needs individualized intervention.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Individualized interventions.

– At home resources for parents to use to support reading skill development.

– Tutoring.

– Before and after school programs.

– Summer school.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Vermont

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“ Under Title 16:Education, the Vermont Statutes state that the State Board of Education, in collaboration with the Agency of Human Services, higher education, literacy organizations, and others, shall develop a plan for establishing a comprehensive system of services for early education in the first three grades to ensure that all students learn to read by the end of the third grade.A public school that offers instruction in grades one, two, or three shall provide highly effective, research-based reading instruction to all students. All students need to receive systematic reading instruction in the early grades from a teacher who is skilled in teaching reading through a variety of instructional strategies that take into account the different learning styles and language backgrounds of the students. “ (Vermont General Assembly). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Research-based reading instruction.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

Virginia

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

The Virginia Literacy Act was signed into law in 2022. It “makes several changes relating to early student literacy, including requiring (i) each education preparation program offered by a public institution of higher education or private institution of higher education or alternative certification program that provides training for any individual seeking initial licensure with an endorsement in a certain area, including as a reading specialist, to demonstrate mastery of science-based reading research and evidence-based literacy instruction, as such terms are defined in the bill; (ii) the literacy assessment required of individuals seeking initial teacher licensure with endorsements in certain areas to include a rigorous test of science-based reading research and evidence-based literacy instruction; (iii) each school board to establish a divisionwide literacy plan; and (iv) each local school board to provide a program of literacy instruction.” (Bill Track 50). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Standards of Learning or diagnostic assessments in reading must be administered in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Determining the need for reading intervention.

– Reporting to the state department of education.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention include:

– Special reading teachers.

– Trained aides.

– Volunteer tutors under the supervision of a certified teacher.

– Computer-based reading tutorial programs.

– Aides to instruct in-class groups while the teacher provides direct instruction to the students who need extra assistance.

– Extended instructional time in the school day or school year for these students.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Washington

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

In 2018, Washington passed Senate Bill 6162 which defines dyslexia as a specific learning disability and requires early screening for dyslexia. The bill states that each school district and charter school must screen each student in kindergarten and first grade for indications of dyslexia.Each school district must also use evidence-based multitiered systems of support to students who display indications of dyslexia.It also called for the dissemination of research and information to schools about evidence-based reading programs and practices. (Journal, IMSE). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed, local decision.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Reading assessments are required in grade 2..

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 Assessment data include:

– Informing parents, teachers, and school administrators on the level of oral reading accuracy and fluency skills for each student.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Superintendents are required to develop a list of intervention strategies to support student reading skills and provide that list of interventions to the state department of education.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

West Virginia

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“The West Virginia Leaders of Literacy: Campaign for Grade-Level Reading  works with all 55 counties to close the literacy gap by the end of third grade.

It focuses on four components to help improve literacy rates:

  • School Readiness
  • Attendance
  • Extended Learning
  • High-Quality Instruction

 The instruction involves immersion in a literacy-rich environment to develop awareness and understanding of reading and writing.” (Journal, IMSE). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

Retention is allowed based on a teacher recommendation.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Assessments beyond federally required third grade assessments are not specified in state statute.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Not specified in state statute.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Before, during and after school instruction.

– Summer instruction.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.

 

Wisconsin

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Under current law, school boards and independent charter schools must

annually assess pupils enrolled in four-year-old kindergarten to second grade for

reading readiness using an assessment of literacy fundamentals selected by the

school board or independent charter school. The selected reading readiness

assessment must evaluate whether a pupil possesses phonemic awareness and letter

sound knowledge. “ (Wisconsin State Legislature). 

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

Yes.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Reading assessments are required in grades K-2.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 Assessment data include:

– Informing parents of student reading difficulties.

– Informing and determining if students need additional instruction and intervention..

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Types of intervention:

– Scientifically-based, individualized reading interventions in areas of deficiency.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

No.

 

Wyoming

Are there any laws about evidence-based literacy instruction?

“Wyoming introduced an act in 2019 (HB297) that states each school district must select and implement a reading assessment and intervention program that uses an instrument that screens for signs of dyslexia. 

This program must be administered to all students in kindergarten through grade three. In order to best assist the school district, the department of education will collect kindergarten through grade two longitudinal data from assessments. These assessments will measure the specific skills that evidence-based research has concluded are predictive of reading proficiency, which include:

  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics
  • Decoding words and non-words
  • Oral reading fluency
  • Reading comprehension” (Journal, IMSE).

Is the state connecting birth-to-age-5 data with K-3? 

No.

Is there a Grade 3 Retention Law? 

No.

Beyond the federally required Grade 3 assessments, what other assessments are required in grades K-3?

Reading assessments are required in grades K-3.

What are the required uses of assessment data in statute?

Required uses of K-3 assessment data include:

– Informing intervention programs.

– Identifying signs of dyslexia and other reading difficulties.

What interventions are available for students in grades K-3?

Type of intervention:

– Individualized reading program.

Is there mandated dyslexia screening? 

Yes.